Populism is on the rise - especially among mỏi Europe's right, & in the US, where it helped crown Mr Trump.Bạn sẽ xem: Populism là gì

Italy's popumenu Five sầu Star Movement and anti-immigrant League parties have sầu emerged as two major players in the latest elections - the most recent of several such results in Europe.

Bạn đang xem: Populism là gì

In political science, populism is the idea that society is separated into lớn two groups at odds with one another - "the pure people" & "the corrupt elite", according khổng lồ Cas Mudde, author of Populism: A Very Short Introduction.

The term is often used as a kind of shorth& political insult. Britain's Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn, has been accused of populism over his party's biểu ngữ "for the many, not the few" - but that's not quite the same thing.

The word "is generally misused, especially in a European context," according to lớn Benjamin Moffitt, author of The Global Rise of Populism.

The true popucác mục leader claims to represent the unified "will of the people". He stands in opposition to lớn an enemy, often embodied by the current system - aiming lớn "drain the swamp" or tackle the "liberal elite".

"It generally attaches itself to lớn the right in a European context… but that's not an iron rule," Dr Moffitt said.

Populist parties can be anywhere on the political spectrum. In Latin America, there was Venezuela's late President Chávez. In Spain, there is the Podemos party, & in Greece the label has also been applied to lớn Syriza. All these are on the left.

But "most successful populists today are on the right, particularly the radical right," Prof Mudde said.

Politicians "like Marine Le Pen in France, Viktor Orphân phối in Hungary, và Donald Trump in the US, combine populism with nativism và authoritarianism," he added.


image captionIn Italy, supporters of the popudanh mục Five Star movement brandish letters spelling out their government ambitions

Commentators - from Time magazine lớn the President of the European Commission - have sầu been warning about the rise of right-wing populism for years.

"Political scientists have been catching on khổng lồ this for the last 25-30 years," Dr Moffitt says - but admits "there's been an acceleration."

Experts point to both societal changes lượt thích multiculturalism and globalism, and more concrete crises as behind the rise of populist parties in Europe.

The swell in support seemed to happen "from 2008 - and particularly in 2011, when the banking crisis turned into lớn a sovereign debt crisis", he said.

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It was a rare occasion when an elite class - the wealthy bankers - could be identified as more or less directly responsible for a crisis which affected the majority of society.

In his book The Global Rise of Populism, Dr Moffitt argues that there are other traits associated with the typical popucác mục leader.

One is "bad manners", or behaving in a way that's not typical of politicians - a tactic employed by President Trump & the Philippines' President Duterte.

The other, he says, is "perpetuating a state of crisis" - and always seeming lớn be on the offensive sầu.

"A popumenu leader who gets into power is 'forced' lớn be in a permanent chiến dịch lớn convince his people that he is not establishment - và never will be," according lớn Prof Nadia Urbinati from Columbia University.

She argues that popumenu nội dung is "made of negatives" - whether it is anti-politics, anti-intellectualism, or anti-elite. Here lies one of the populism's strengths - it is versatile.

Another comtháng thread aao ước popudanh mục leaders is they tend khổng lồ dislike the "complicated democratic systems" of modern government - preferring direct democracy like referendums instead, according khổng lồ Prof Bull.

That also ties in to lớn its liên kết to authoritarianism, he argues - a lachồng of trust in the established system gives rise lớn "strongman" leaders.

"Ultimately, the leader makes the decision in a way that just isn't possible in traditional democracies," he says.

That sentiment is perhaps best embodied by the late left-wing Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, who once said: "I am not an individual - I am the people".


Such thinking "can lead to people thinking they're infallible," Dr Moffitt said. "It restructures the political space in a new & scary way".

"In order to garner tư vấn, they're quicker than the establishment buổi tiệc nhỏ lớn make offers, or lớn promise to change things… that on closer inspection may not turn out khổng lồ be feasible," he said.